Calorie Restriction and Jimmy Joy

Calorie restriction is a method of increasing longevity by reducing calorie intake by about 20%. It’s been studied in various animal species since the 1930s and shown consistently to work, even if not always in the same way or to the same degree.

Recent studies in mice showed that calorie restriction increases longevity by about 42%, but also pushes health-destroying diseases back until later in their lives. In a study by Stephen Spindler, it was showed that tumours were much reduced in mice that had reduced calorie diets, vs those with normal diets.

Calorie restriction does not mean simply reducing the food you eat. If you do that, you are also reducing the percentage of micro-nutrients that you eat.

In my case, for example, I’ve been eating nothing but Jimmy Joy for the last month as an experiment to see what it did for me. I discovered that it was difficult to eat a full day’s worth, and that if you don’t eat a full day’s worth, you are losing out on nutrients.

Jimmy Joy (old name: Joylent) is a “future food” that is carefully designed to have exactly 2100 calories in a one day sample, and as close as possible to 100% of the recommended daily recommended values of all the micro-nutrients (vitamins, minerals, etc). Those are the things that you need to eat every day, but are not mentioned on ingredient labels…

I was overweight by almost 20kg at the beginning of the year, and have been reducing that in various ways since then. I found that moving onto Jimmy Joy made an amazing immediate change, causing my weight loss to increase hugely (20g average per day to 100g average per day).

This is because Jimmy Joy is very filling. If you mix it at the ratios that they recommend, there appears to be a “foaming” effect where the food feels like it’s filling you up even with just the smallest amount. The encourages you to eat less.

While this might have a desired effect on weight, it has some side-effects – I’m tired, weak, sometimes less mentally sharp than I would like, and I have a lowered libido.

This is because the food is designed to give you exactly 100% of what you need. If you eat less, then you are getting less than 100% of what you need.

While eating less calories is a desired thing, consuming less micro-nutrients is not.

This highlights the problem, but what is the solution?

Going back to eating “normal” food is not a solution. My diet was nowhere near optimal before this.

Doctors and other health-professionals recommend that you “plan carefully” when creating your diet, which is a vague way of saying “we don’t have a plan either”. When they say you should have plenty of variety in your diet, they are basically saying “if you eat lots of stuff, you will give yourself the right nutrients by accident”, which is yet another way of saying “we don’t have a plan.”

I can see two solutions to this:
1: that Jimmy Joy (or a similar food supplier) comes out with a very-low-calorie variant that is still 100% nutrient-full, which you can then mix with your normal day-to-day Jimmy Joy to get the right calories you’re looking for.
2: that I write a nutrient calculator program that can design recipes itself based on exact requirements

I have no control over Jimmy Joy’s choices, and I’m sure they’re happy enough with the money they’re making on their standard meals, so they’re unlikely to start accepting amendment requests from random nobodies.

So, I started building my own service to provide recipe plans.

So far, the plan is able to generate mixes of ingredients for single days that are designed to provide you with 100% nutrition, and your own requested number of calories.

I’m working now on making multi-day plans to allow overestimates or underestimates of ingredients to be balanced out over days. This way if you have too much iron today (for example), then tomorrow, your plan will include less iron.

I have a number of far-future plans for this.

One is that I can use this kind of program to generate personalised meal-plans for people that are trying to diet but are unsure that they are doing it right (that would be everyone, right?).

Another is that I can use this to generate one-day meal packets similar to how Jimmy Joy, Soylent, Huel, Jake, etc do, but again, personalised.

Tomorrow, I start eating based on my own plan. If I do this right, then I will soon be back to my usual alert self, but will also still be losing weight, as my own plan will have reduced calories in it.

maximum lifespan of a human

Last year (October 2016), a number of scientists pronounced that humans can not live longer than 115 years old.

This, despite the fact that a French woman, Jeanne Calment, died aged 122.

The problem arose because these scientists based their pronouncement on existing data, not factoring in the fact that we have never in the history of medicine applied ourselves to solving aging itself, but rather to solving the health issues that arise as side effects of aging.

This is similar in a way to stating that the highest point a person could ever touch on a wall is about 2.5 meters above ground, totally ignoring that we can invent stools or ladders.

Aging is only recently being recognised as a disease, and the fundamental causes of it are still being identified.

One reason we have an apparent limit on longevity is that genes have a “half-life” of sorts, where they can only divide a certain maximum number of times before they refuse to divide anymore. This limit is called the “Hayflick limit” after the person who noticed it.

The reason that genes won’t divide forever is that the ends of them, the telomeres, get shorter each time a division happens, and eventually they are so short that another division might cause a loss of functional code, so the cells notice this and refuse to divide anymore, going into senescence mode.

There are two treatments which can solve this issue.

Firstly, there is a treatment which has been demonstrated to lengthen the telomeres. If this treatment is repeated each ten-fifteen years, the telomeres should stay long indefinitely.

Second, you can kill the already-senescent cells by blocking the FOXO4 protein using a FOXO4-DRI (a FOXO4 peptide whose amino acid sequence has been reversed). This allows the senescent cells to die off, letting the body replace them with fresher cells.

And to help the DNA replicate more correctly, probably reducing the frequency that telomere treatment would be needed, you can increase the NAD+ in your cells by using NMN supplements.

People in the past never had access to those treatments, so it is understandable that there was an apparent limit to lifespan, but there really is no excuse – a scientist should never make an absolute claim like that which can so easily be shown to be false.

image source

Mathematical Universe

For the last few hundred years, we have been able to gradually pin down exactly how everything in the universe works, right down to a very small group of equations.

What that means is that everything in the universe can be predicted using math (either exactly, or statistically).

Philosophically, there is no difference at all between a mathematical description of you observing the universe, and the real you observing the universe. How could you tell which is “real”, when everything that happens in “reality” can be predicted by just doing the math? Is there a difference between a mathematical universe and a “real” universe?

In a way, this means that we are all like NPCs (non-player characters) in a computer game, all of us convinced that we are real and that the world we inhabit is real, when in fact, the entire game and ourselves are being simulated in a universe-encompassing machine.

In reality’s case, what is this universe-encompassing machine? Well, math can be worked out on a computer, on paper, or in your head, and if done correctly, it will always come up with the same answers. Math is objective – it doesn’t rely on a medium. It doesn’t need the paper in order to be correct – it just is.

Consider the sequence (1, 2, 3, 4, …) for example – the next number is 5, no matter whether we compute it or not.

Even incredibly complex equations obey the same objective law – if you consider an equation that predicts the position of every particle in the universe in one second – this equation will have an answer whether it is calculated or not.

All equations exist in potential. This means that the equation “x+y-z” has just as much reality as the sequence “1, 2, 3, 4, …”, and therefore the answers to those equations also all exist in potential.

This means that every possible universe exists as a mathematical potential, and because there is no discernible difference between “reality” and a simulated universe (for people inside those universes), it means that every single universe, that you can describe mathematically, exists.

And by extension, every universe in which you survive the present and the near and far futures, also exists.

non-invasive deep-brain stimulation

Deep-brain stimulation is used in a number of therapies, for diseases such as Parkinson’s, major depression, OCD, dystonia. It is also used to lessen chronic pain and to help regulate Essential tremors.

This involves drilling a 1.4cm hole in the head, then inserting electrodes into the brain into the affected part.

Obviously, there are risks involved in this.

A team at MIT has come up with a method to provide stimulation at any desired part of the brain using electrodes that are placed on the scalp instead of embedded within the brain. No surgery required.

How it works is that the electrodes, placed on either side of the head, give out waves of electricity. The waves interfere with each other like two waves meeting in a pond, cancelling each other out except for in specific points where the waves are intensified instead.

splash-water-waves-4559

An advantage to this method is that the intersection points can be “steered” by adjusting the waves.

My opinion: this method should make a lot of surgeries unnecessary, and will make the therapies for those disease so simple that it might eventually be possible to simple buy an off-the-shelf electrode cap and run some open source software to fix your issues.

Methuselah Mouse

Sounds like a superhero name, right?

In 2003, David Gobel provided seed capital for a prize (the Methuselah Mouse Prize, or Mprize) to be awarded to anyone that could demonstrate impressive improvements in longevity in mice.

The first Methuselah Mouse prize ever awarded was to Dr. Andrzej Bartke of the Southern Illinois University School of Medicine. He altered a gene which controlled a mouse’s response to growth hormone, which led to reduced levels of insulin and glucose in the blood. The change protected the mouse’s DNA from age-related decay, which led to the mouse living to the grand old age of 1819 days. In human terms, that’s more than 150 years old. The mouse wasn’t called Methuselah, but GHR-KO 11C. Not quite as easy to pronounce (or remember!).

The first rejuvenation award was given in 2004 to Stephen Spindler for his work on caloric restriction, which extended life in mice by 15%.

The first Lifespan Achievement award was given to Dr. Zelton Dave Sharp in 2009 for his extension of lifespans in mice that are already aged, using rapamycin, which inhibits mTor pathways leading to life extension in yeast, fruitflies and nematodes. It wasn’t known if it would affect mammals. It turns it, it does – 14% extension for females, 9% for males.

The reason that the prize concentrates on mice, and not just any old species, is that mice are well-studied throughout medical history, and the biology in mice is very similar to that of humans, so anything that affects mice can have a comparable effect in humans.

is aspartame safe

Someone tried very hard to convince me that aspartame, an artificial sweetener, is bad for you. The only paper that came close was this one which concludes that there is a significant risk of rats developing leukemia if they consume 2000ppm of aspartame daily.

However, if you do the math, the sheer amount of aspartame needed is incredible.

To show my point, I calculated how many cans of Coke Zero you’d need to consume per day in order to develop leukemia from the aspartame content.

9834.5 cans of Coke Zero.

If you drank 9834.5 cans of Coke Zero a day, you would be more likely to die of …well, anything, before the aspartame affected you.

How I calculate it:

The chance of developing a malignant tumour is significant at a level of 2000ppm in rats.

2000ppm = 2000mg per kg.

To convert to human dosage, you multiply the value by the NOAEL value for the drug and animal. That’s 4000.

So in humans, a dosage of 8000mg (8g) per kg of body weight is dangerous.

I weigh 71.3kg, so I shouldn’t consume more than 570400mg (570.4g) of aspartame a day.

There are 58mg of Aspartame in 1 can of Coke Zero.

570.4g/58mg is 9834.5 cans of Coke Zero.

water temperature and weight loss

As part of my effort to reach the optimal weight for my height (according to BMI and my SBSI calculator), I’ve been thinking about at all sorts of things.

I learned this morning that you can burn calories simply by drinking water. After thinking about it, it makes a lot of sense.

I figured out you can burn up to 137kcal just by chilling your drinking water to just over freezing.

The human body has a maintained internal temperature of 37°C. When you drink water, the water cools the body down, so the body reacts by heating back up (thermogenesis) so it can remain at 37°C, which involves burning calories.

So how many calories are burned? That depends on the amount and temperature of the water you drink.

The formula to determine the calories used is actually very easy, because the definition of a calorie is “the energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water through 1°C”. Note that “calorie” in this case is 1/1000th of a kcal, which is what people usually call a calorie. Yeah, humans, confusing things aren’t they. Personally, I use kcal as the main measure, and if I say “calorie”, I mean “one thousandth of a kilo-calorie”.

Assuming that tap water is at room temperature (about 20°C), it would therefore take 17 calories per mililitre (1g of water equals 1ml of water) to heat it to body temperature, or 17kcal per litre.

So if you drink a standard-sized glass of water (240ml), this will burn 4080 calories (240ml*17°C), or about 4kcal.

To double the amount of calories burned, cool the water to just above freezing. This way a glass of water will burn 9kcal (.240l*37°C = 8.88kcal).

The recommended daily intake of water is 3.7 litres for a male, or 2.7 litres for a female.

So, it is possible to burn 137kcal per day (3.7*37°C = 136.9kcal) just by chilling all of your water.

Foods High in Calcium and Vitamin D

I saw this question asked recently and wondered how you would measure it. It’s (relatively) easy to see what foods are high in Vitamin D or in Calcium – download the USDA nutrition database and sort by either column. But to measure both?

Food has nutrition in different ratios. Some have low amounts of calcium and high vitamin D, some high and low, some low and low, some high and high. That’s obviously a simplification.

How to measure? Well, the method I chose was to make a spreadsheet with the values of calcium in mg and vitamin D in mcg, add two columns which measure how they relate to the recommended daily amounts for those nutritions, and a third column which multiplies the two RDA relations together. Then I sorted by that multiple.

The resulting table gives this list of foods high in calcium and vitamin D, ordered by their multiple of the recommended daily allowance, in descending order:

long_desc calcium (mg) *rda vitamin_d (mcg) *rda together
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, Whole Grain TOTAL 3333 83.33 8.30 0.83 69.16
Babyfood, cereal, oatmeal, dry fortified 1160 29.00 12.70 1.27 36.83
Milk, dry, nonfat, regular, with added vitamin A and vitamin D 1257 31.43 11.00 1.10 34.57
Milk, dry, nonfat, instant, with added vitamin A and vitamin D 1231 30.78 11.00 1.10 33.85
Beverages, UNILEVER, SLIMFAST Shake Mix, high protein, whey powder, 3-2-1 Plan, 1039 25.98 9.60 0.96 24.94
Milk, dry, whole, with added vitamin D 912 22.80 10.50 1.05 23.94
Beverages, nutritional shake mix, high protein, powder 714 17.85 12.50 1.25 22.31
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, TOTAL Raisin Bran 1887 47.18 4.70 0.47 22.17
Cheese product, pasteurized process, American, vitamin D fortified 1360 34.00 6.50 0.65 22.10
Protein supplement, milk based, Muscle Milk Light, powder 1200 30.00 7.00 0.70 21.00
Beverages, rich chocolate, powder 909 22.73 9.10 0.91 20.68
Beverages, OVALTINE, Classic Malt powder 909 22.73 9.10 0.91 20.68
Beverages, OVALTINE, chocolate malt powder 909 22.73 9.10 0.91 20.68
Cheese, pasteurized process, American, fortified with vitamin D 1045 26.13 7.50 0.75 19.59
Infant formula, ABBOTT NUTRITION, SIMILAC, GO AND GROW, powder, with ARA and DHA 998 24.95 7.70 0.77 19.21
Infant formula, GERBER, GOOD START 2, PROTECT PLUS, powder 956 23.90 7.70 0.77 18.40
Babyfood, cereal, rice, dry fortified 860 21.50 8.50 0.85 18.28
Infant formula, MEAD JOHNSON, ENFAMIL, ENFAGROW, GENTLEASE, Toddler, LIPIL, powder 970 24.25 7.50 0.75 18.19
Infant Formula, GERBER GOOD START 2, GENTLE PLUS, powder 935 23.38 7.40 0.74 17.30
Beverages, Dairy drink mix, chocolate, reduced calorie, with low-calorie sweeteners, powder 1412 35.30 4.70 0.47 16.59
Infant formula, MEAD JOHNSON, NEXT STEP, PROSOBEE LIPIL, powder, with ARA and DHA 920 23.00 7.10 0.71 16.33
Infant formula, MEAD JOHNSON, NEXT STEP PROSOBEE, powder, not reconstituted 920 23.00 7.10 0.71 16.33
Infant formula, MEAD JOHNSON, ENFAMIL, ENFAGROW, Soy, Toddler, LIPIL, powder 930 23.25 7.00 0.70 16.28
Infant formula, MEAD JOHNSON, ENFAMIL, ENFACARE LIPIL, with iron, powder, with ARA and DHA 590 14.75 9.80 0.98 14.46
Fish, salmon, sockeye, canned, drained solids 232 5.80 21.00 2.10 12.18
Infant formula, ABBOTT NUTRITION, SIMILAC, NEOSURE, powder, with ARA and DHA 541 13.53 9.00 0.90 12.17
Toddler formula, MEAD JOHNSON, ENFAGROW, PREMIUM (formerly ENFAMIL, LIPIL, NEXT STEP), powder 600 15.00 7.50 0.75 11.25
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, FIBER ONE 80 Calories, Chocolate Squares 1333 33.33 3.30 0.33 11.00
Infant formula, NESTLE, GOOD START 2 ESSENTIALS, with iron, powder 565 14.13 7.70 0.77 10.88
Infant formula, ABBOTT NUTRITION, SIMILAC, ISOMIL, with iron, powder, not reconstituted 540 13.50 7.70 0.77 10.39
Infant formula, ABBOTT NUTRITION, SIMILAC, ISOMIL, ADVANCE with iron, powder, not reconstituted 540 13.50 7.70 0.77 10.39
Fish, salmon, pink, canned, drained solids 283 7.08 14.50 1.45 10.26
Child formula, MEAD JOHNSON, PORTAGEN, with iron, powder, not reconstituted 440 11.00 9.30 0.93 10.23
Infant formula, MEAD JOHNSON, PREGESTIMIL, with iron, powder, not reconstituted 580 14.50 7.00 0.70 10.15
Infant formula, NESTLE, GOOD START ESSENTIALS SOY, with iron, powder 526 13.15 7.70 0.77 10.13
Infant formula, ABBOTT NUTRITION, SIMILAC, SENSITIVE, (LACTOSE FREE), powder, with ARA and DHA 436 10.90 9.20 0.92 10.03
Infant formula, MEAD JOHNSON, ENFAMIL, PROSOBEE, with iron, powder, not reconstituted 530 13.25 7.50 0.75 9.94
Infant formula, MEAD JOHNSON, ENFAMIL, PROSOBEE LIPIL, with iron, powder, not reconstituted, with ARA and DHA 530 13.25 7.50 0.75 9.94
Infant formula, NESTLE, GOOD START SOY, with ARA and DHA, powder 526 13.15 7.50 0.75 9.86
Infant formula, GERBER, GOOD START 2 SOY, with iron, powder 526 13.15 7.50 0.75 9.86
Infant Formula, MEAD JOHNSON, ENFAMIL, Premium, Newborn, powder 400 10.00 9.50 0.95 9.50
Salmon, sockeye, canned, total can contents 198 4.95 19.00 1.90 9.41
Formulated bar, SLIM-FAST OPTIMA meal bar, milk chocolate peanut 668 16.70 5.40 0.54 9.02
Beverages, UNILEVER, SLIMFAST Shake Mix, powder, 3-2-1 Plan 364 9.10 9.60 0.96 8.74
Infant formula, PBM PRODUCTS, store brand, soy, powder 453 11.33 7.60 0.76 8.61
Formulated bar, MARS SNACKFOOD US, SNICKERS MARATHON Energy Bar, all flavors 754 18.85 4.50 0.45 8.48
Infant formula, MEAD JOHNSON, ENFAMIL, LACTOFREE LIPIL, with iron, powder, with ARA and DHA 430 10.75 7.80 0.78 8.39
Infant formula, MEAD JOHNSON, ENFAMIL, LACTOFREE, with iron, powder, not reconstituted 430 10.75 7.80 0.78 8.39
Infant formula, ABBOTT NUTRITION, SIMILAC, For Spit Up, powder, with ARA and DHA 432 10.80 7.70 0.77 8.32
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, FIBER ONE 80 Calories, Honey Squares 1000 25.00 3.30 0.33 8.25
Infant Formula, MEAD JOHNSON, ENFAMIL, GENTLEASE, powder 420 10.50 7.80 0.78 8.19
Infant formula, ABBOTT NUTRITION, SIMILAC, with iron, powder, not reconstituted 410 10.25 7.90 0.79 8.10
Infant formula, ABBOTT NUTRITION, SIMILAC, low iron, powder, not reconstituted 410 10.25 7.90 0.79 8.10
Infant formula, ABBOTT NUTRITION, SIMILAC, ADVANCE, with iron, powder, not reconstituted 410 10.25 7.90 0.79 8.10
Cereals ready-to-eat, RALSTON Corn Biscuits 378 9.45 8.30 0.83 7.84
Infant formula, MEAD JOHNSON, ENFAMIL, with iron, powder 400 10.00 7.80 0.78 7.80
Infant formula, MEAD JOHNSON, ENFAMIL, LIPIL, with iron, powder, with ARA and DHA 400 10.00 7.80 0.78 7.80
Infant formula, MEAD JOHNSON, ENFAMIL, low iron, powder, not reconstituted 400 10.00 7.80 0.78 7.80
Infant formula, MEAD JOHNSON, ENFAMIL, AR LIPIL, powder, with ARA and DHA 397 9.93 7.70 0.77 7.64
Infant formula, ABBOTT NUTRITION, ALIMENTUM ADVANCE, with iron, powder, not reconstituted, with DHA and ARA 534 13.35 5.70 0.57 7.61
Egg, yolk, dried 289 7.23 10.40 1.04 7.51
Infant formula, MEAD JOHNSON, ENFAMIL, NUTRAMIGEN, with iron, powder, not reconstituted 470 11.75 6.30 0.63 7.40
Infant formula, MEAD JOHNSON, ENFAMIL, NUTRAMIGEN LIPIL, with iron, powder, not reconstituted, with ARA and DHA 470 11.75 6.30 0.63 7.40
Infant formula, MEAD JOHNSON, ENFAMIL, NUTRAMIGEN, AA LIPIL, powder, not reconstituted 470 11.75 6.30 0.63 7.40
Fish, salmon, pink, canned, total can contents 215 5.38 13.70 1.37 7.36
Infant Formula, MEAD JOHNSON, ENFAMIL, Premium LIPIL, Infant, powder 390 9.75 7.50 0.75 7.31
Infant Formula, MEAD JOHNSON, ENFAMIL, Premium, Infant, powder 390 9.75 7.50 0.75 7.31
Cheese product, pasteurized process, American, reduced fat, fortified with vitamin D 529 13.23 5.30 0.53 7.01
Formulated bar, LUNA BAR, NUTZ OVER CHOCOLATE 886 22.15 3.10 0.31 6.87
Infant formula, NESTLE, GOOD START SUPREME, with iron, powder 343 8.58 7.70 0.77 6.60
Infant formula, GERBER, GOOD START, PROTECT PLUS, powder 343 8.58 7.70 0.77 6.60
Cereals ready-to-eat, RALSTON TASTEEOS 357 8.93 7.10 0.71 6.34
Infant formula, PBM PRODUCTS, store brand, powder 331 8.28 7.60 0.76 6.29
Protein supplement, milk based, Muscle Milk, powder 500 12.50 5.00 0.50 6.25
Fish, salmon, chum, canned, drained solids with bone 249 6.23 9.60 0.96 5.98
Formulated bar, MARS SNACKFOOD US, SNICKERS MARATHON Protein Performance Bar, Caramel Nut Rush 625 15.63 3.80 0.38 5.94
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, CINNAMON TOAST CRUNCH 444 11.10 5.30 0.53 5.88
Infant formula, ABBOTT NUTRITION, SIMILAC, PM 60/40, powder not reconstituted 288 7.20 7.70 0.77 5.54
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, 25% Less Sugar CINNAMON TOAST CRUNCH 714 17.85 2.90 0.29 5.18
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, Honey KIX 455 11.38 4.50 0.45 5.12
Egg, whole, dried 244 6.10 8.30 0.83 5.06
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, HONEY NUT CHEERIOS 425 10.63 4.60 0.46 4.89
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, KIX 570 14.25 3.30 0.33 4.70
Fish, sardine, Atlantic, canned in oil, drained solids with bone 382 9.55 4.80 0.48 4.58
Cereals, KELLOGG’S SPECIAL K NOURISH, Cinnamon Raisin Pecan, dry 385 9.63 4.70 0.47 4.52
Fish, mackerel, jack, canned, drained solids 241 6.03 7.30 0.73 4.40
Cheese food, pasteurized process, American, vitamin D fortified 682 17.05 2.50 0.25 4.26
Cheese food, pasteurized process, American, without added vitamin D 682 17.05 2.50 0.25 4.26
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, LUCKY CHARMS 434 10.85 3.90 0.39 4.23
Cereals ready-to-eat, KELLOGG, KELLOGG’S ALL-BRAN Original 389 9.73 4.30 0.43 4.18
Fish, mackerel, salted 66 1.65 25.20 2.52 4.16
Cheese, fresh, queso fresco 566 14.15 2.70 0.27 3.82
Vitasoy USA Nasoya, Lite Silken Tofu 394 9.85 3.80 0.38 3.74
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, COOKIE CRISP 385 9.63 3.80 0.38 3.66
Cereals, KELLOGG’S SPECIAL K NOURISH, Cranberry Almond, dry 385 9.63 3.80 0.38 3.66
Cereals, KELLOGG’S SPECIAL K NOURISH, Maple Brown Sugar Crunch, dry 385 9.63 3.80 0.38 3.66
Cereals ready-to-eat, MALT-O-MEAL, HONEY GRAHAM SQUARES 367 9.18 3.80 0.38 3.49
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, Rice CHEX 370 9.25 3.70 0.37 3.42
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, Berry Burst CHEERIOS, Triple Berry 370 9.25 3.70 0.37 3.42
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, FROSTED CHEERIOS 370 9.25 3.70 0.37 3.42
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, COUNT CHOCULA 370 9.25 3.70 0.37 3.42
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, COCOA PUFFS 370 9.25 3.70 0.37 3.42
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, DORA THE EXPLORER 370 9.25 3.70 0.37 3.42
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, Fruity CHEERIOS 370 9.25 3.70 0.37 3.42
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, CHEERIOS, Chocolate 370 9.25 3.70 0.37 3.42
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, Dulce De Leche CHEERIOS 370 9.25 3.70 0.37 3.42
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, CHEERIOS 401 10.03 3.40 0.34 3.41
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, BERRY BERRY KIX 421 10.53 3.20 0.32 3.37
Steelhead trout, dried, flesh (Shoshone Bannock) 85 2.13 15.70 1.57 3.34
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, CHOCOLATE LUCKY CHARMS 357 8.93 3.60 0.36 3.21
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, CHEERIOS, Banana Nut 357 8.93 3.60 0.36 3.21
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, Multi Grain CHEERIOS, Peanut Butter 357 8.93 3.60 0.36 3.21
Egg Mix, USDA Commodity 171 4.28 7.40 0.74 3.16
Cereals ready-to-eat, frosted oat cereal with marshmallows 333 8.33 3.60 0.36 3.00
Cheese, dry white, queso seco 661 16.53 1.80 0.18 2.97
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, Multi-Grain CHEERIOS 345 8.63 3.40 0.34 2.93
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, REESE’S PUFFS 345 8.63 3.40 0.34 2.93
Fish, sardine, Pacific, canned in tomato sauce, drained solids with bone 240 6.00 4.80 0.48 2.88
Cereals ready-to-eat, MALT-O-MEAL, MARSHMALLOW MATEYS 333 8.33 3.30 0.33 2.75
Cereals ready-to-eat, MALT-O-MEAL, COCO-ROOS 333 8.33 3.30 0.33 2.75
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, APPLE CINNAMON CHEERIOS 333 8.33 3.30 0.33 2.75
Cereals ready-to-eat, MALT-O-MEAL, CINNAMON TOASTERS 333 8.33 3.30 0.33 2.75
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, CHEERIOS, Yogurt Burst, strawberry 333 8.33 3.30 0.33 2.75
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, Cinnamon CHEX 333 8.33 3.30 0.33 2.75
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, COCOA PUFFS, 25% Reduced Sugar 333 8.33 3.30 0.33 2.75
Cereals ready-to-eat, MALT-O-MEAL, Honey Nut SCOOTERS 333 8.33 3.30 0.33 2.75
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, FROSTED TOAST CRUNCH 333 8.33 3.30 0.33 2.75
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, Oat Cluster CHEERIOS Crunch 296 7.40 3.70 0.37 2.74
Cereals ready-to-eat, MALT-O-MEAL, Blueberry MUFFIN TOPS Cereal 338 8.45 3.20 0.32 2.70
Milk, evaporated, 2% fat, with added vitamin A and vitamin D 267 6.68 4.00 0.40 2.67
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, 25% Less Sugar TRIX 357 8.93 2.90 0.29 2.59
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, Corn CHEX 323 8.08 3.20 0.32 2.58
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, GOLDEN GRAHAMS 323 8.08 3.20 0.32 2.58
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, PEANUT BUTTER TOAST CRUNCH 323 8.08 3.20 0.32 2.58
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, HONEY NUT CHEERIOS, MEDLEY CRUNCH 323 8.08 3.20 0.32 2.58
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, Apple Cinnamon CHEX 323 8.08 3.20 0.32 2.58
Fish, carp, raw 41 1.03 24.70 2.47 2.53
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, Honey Nut CHEX 313 7.83 3.10 0.31 2.43
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, TRIX 313 7.83 3.10 0.31 2.43
Cereals ready-to-eat, MALT-O-MEAL, TOOTIE FRUITIES 313 7.83 3.10 0.31 2.43
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, Cinnamon Burst CHEERIOS 313 7.83 3.10 0.31 2.43
Seaweed, Canadian Cultivated EMI-TSUNOMATA, dry 299 7.48 3.10 0.31 2.32
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, FRANKENBERRY 303 7.58 3.00 0.30 2.27
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, BOO BERRY 303 7.58 3.00 0.30 2.27
Cereals ready-to-eat, MALT-O-MEAL, Apple ZINGS 303 7.58 3.00 0.30 2.27
Cereals ready-to-eat, MALT-O-MEAL, CHOCOLATE MARSHMALLOW MATEYS 267 6.68 3.30 0.33 2.20
Snack, BALANCE, original bar 543 13.58 1.60 0.16 2.17
Fish, Salmon, pink, canned, drained solids, without skin and bones 60 1.50 14.10 1.41 2.12
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, Chocolate CHEX 286 7.15 2.90 0.29 2.07
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, BASIC 4 455 11.38 1.80 0.18 2.05
Egg, yolk, raw, frozen, pasteurized 134 3.35 6.00 0.60 2.01
Fish, caviar, black and red, granular 275 6.88 2.90 0.29 1.99
Salmon, sockeye, canned, drained solids, without skin and bones 37 0.93 21.50 2.15 1.99
Vitasoy USA, Nasoya Lite Firm Tofu 184 4.60 3.90 0.39 1.79
Cheese, cheddar, sharp, sliced 711 17.78 1.00 0.10 1.78
Milk and cereal bar 410 10.25 1.70 0.17 1.74
Egg, yolk, raw, fresh 129 3.23 5.40 0.54 1.74
Cereals ready-to-eat, KELLOGG’S, SPECIAL K protein, cinnamon brown sugar crunch 205 5.13 3.30 0.33 1.69
Fish, cod, Atlantic, dried and salted 160 4.00 4.00 0.40 1.60
Cheese, pasteurized process, American, without added vitamin D 1045 26.13 0.60 0.06 1.57
Cheese, parmesan, shredded 1253 31.33 0.50 0.05 1.57
Cheese, goat, hard type 895 22.38 0.70 0.07 1.57
Vitasoy USA Organic Nasoya, Tofu Plus Extra Firm 246 6.15 2.50 0.25 1.54
Cereals ready-to-eat, KELLOGG, KELLOGG’S COCOA KRISPIES 127 3.18 4.80 0.48 1.52
Cheese, gruyere 1011 25.28 0.60 0.06 1.52
Vitasoy USA Organic Nasoya Sprouted, Tofu Plus Super Firm 239 5.98 2.50 0.25 1.49
Vitasoy USA Organic Nasoya, Tofu Plus Firm 237 5.93 2.50 0.25 1.48
Cheese, parmesan, hard 1184 29.60 0.50 0.05 1.48
Milk, buttermilk, dried 1184 29.60 0.50 0.05 1.48
Milk, canned, evaporated, nonfat, with added vitamin A and vitamin D 290 7.25 2.00 0.20 1.45
Mushrooms, brown, italian, or crimini, exposed to ultraviolet light, raw 18 0.45 31.90 3.19 1.44
Fish, trout, rainbow, farmed, cooked, dry heat 30 0.75 19.00 1.90 1.43
Cereals ready-to-eat, KELLOGG’S SPECIAL K Chocolate Almond 105 2.63 5.40 0.54 1.42
Cheese, romano 1064 26.60 0.50 0.05 1.33
Milk, canned, evaporated, with added vitamin D and without added vitamin A 261 6.53 2.00 0.20 1.31
Fish, salmon, coho, wild, cooked, dry heat 45 1.13 11.30 1.13 1.27
Cheese, white, queso blanco 690 17.25 0.70 0.07 1.21
Cheese, swiss, low sodium 961 24.03 0.50 0.05 1.20
Cheese, parmesan, low sodium 800 20.00 0.60 0.06 1.20
Infant formula, ABBOTT NUTRITION, SIMILAC, NATURAL CARE, ADVANCE, ready-to-feed, with ARA and DHA 163 4.08 2.90 0.29 1.18
Fish, eel, mixed species, raw 20 0.50 23.30 2.33 1.16
Cheese, Mexican, blend, reduced fat 1146 28.65 0.40 0.04 1.15
Milk, dry, whole, without added vitamin D 912 22.80 0.50 0.05 1.14
Steelhead trout, boiled, canned (Alaska Native) 30 0.75 15.10 1.51 1.13
Cheese, monterey 746 18.65 0.60 0.06 1.12
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, Wheat CHEX 213 5.33 2.10 0.21 1.12
Cheese, parmesan, dry grated, reduced fat 1109 27.73 0.40 0.04 1.11
Beverages, Malted drink mix, chocolate, with added nutrients, powder, prepared with whole milk 139 3.48 3.10 0.31 1.08
Cheese, muenster 717 17.93 0.60 0.06 1.08
Cheese, parmesan, grated 853 21.33 0.50 0.05 1.07
Cheese, cheddar 710 17.75 0.60 0.06 1.07
Cheese, low-sodium, cheddar or colby 703 17.58 0.60 0.06 1.05
Infant formula, MEAD JOHNSON, ENFAMIL, Premature, 20 calories ready-to-feed 108 2.70 3.90 0.39 1.05
Infant formula, MEAD JOHNSON, ENFAMIL, Premature, 24 calo ready-to-feed 108 2.70 3.90 0.39 1.05
Infant formula, MEAD JOHNSON, ENFAMIL, Premature, 20 calories ready-to-feed Low iron 108 2.70 3.90 0.39 1.05
Infant formula, MEAD JOHNSON, ENFAMIL, Premature, 24 calories ready-to-feed Low iron 108 2.70 3.90 0.39 1.05
Cheese, colby 685 17.13 0.60 0.06 1.03
Cheese, mexican, queso cotija 800 20.00 0.50 0.05 1.00
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, FIBER ONE, Caramel Delight 200 5.00 2.00 0.20 1.00
Beverages, chocolate malt powder, prepared with 1% milk, fortified 160 4.00 2.50 0.25 1.00
Fish, herring, Atlantic, cooked, dry heat 74 1.85 5.40 0.54 1.00

 

black holes and baby universes

Yesterday, I was talking to some of my students at the Coolest Projects seminar in Dublin, and we ended up discussing Nikodem Poplawski’s idea that all black holes contain universes, and how that leads to there being infinite universes, and therefore we are all immortal (due to quantum immortality).

In Newton’s classical mechanics, the more mass there is in a volume, the stronger the gravity is near that volume.

However, if each black hole contains a universe, and then recursively contains its own black holes and therefore further universes and black holes (turtles all the way down!), then that means that each black hole can potentially contain infinite mass, and so Newton’s math suggests that the gravity of black holes is infinite in strength.

But it’s not. We know this because if it was, there would be nothing outside black holes – it would all be sucked in.

So how can a black hole contain potentially infinite mass, and yet not exude infinite gravitational attraction?

The solution lies in the speed of gravity.

If the sun was to suddenly vanish from our solar system, then the Earth would continue to orbit the space where it was for 8 minutes, because gravity waves take time to propagate across space.

If a black hole creates its own space inside itself, due to the huge pressure and friction, then gravity from the absolute center (for example), takes longer to get to the outside because it has more space to traverse.

We know from our own observations that this universe is expanding. If all universes within black holes are created by the expansion of space, then it is possible that the space is created at such a speed that gravity cannot travel from one side of the hole through the center to the other side, because the space expands so fast that it simply never gets there.

We know as well that in our own universe, there is no such thing as empty space. Virtual particles appear and disappear all the time. It makes sense that sometimes these virtual particles will appear, separate, and sometimes not recombine and vanish. Sometimes, matter (and therefore mass) will appear out of nothing.

And so, the inside of a black hole will create its own space, alone with its own new matter, seeding a new universe.

So how does this all tie in with immortality?

The number of possible configurations of energy/mass in a universe depends on the size of that universe. Space is made of nodes and lines connecting the nodes. There is no “distance” between the nodes. “Distance” and “size” are measured by literally counting the nodes and lines.

Because space is quantised, anything that is in space must be located on a specific node. This means that if there are three nodes, for example, then a point particle can only exist in one of three places. This in turn means that if you have four universes, each composed of three nodes (in the same configuration for simplicity) and one point particle, then at least two of those universes must be exactly the same.

The same principle means that if you have larger universes and more particles, there is still a limit to how many universes you can have before two of them must be exactly the same.

For example, if there are 4 nodes (again, configured similarly for simplicity) and 2 point particles, there are only 16 unique configurations (4+4*3). If there are 3 point particles, there are 40 unique configurations (4+4*3+4*3*2).

In the first case, if there are 17 universes, at least two are exactly the same. In the second, if there are 41 universes, at least two are exactly the same.

No matter how large the universe gets, there is still a number that equates to how many possible configurations it can be in. If more than that number of universes exist, then there are duplicates.

If all black holes contain universes, and there are then recursive universes and black holes, then there are infinite universes, and therefore there are infinite duplicates of universes.

This means that there are infinite universes which are exact copies of this universe, including copies of you, which have your exact history, memories, and thoughts.

If there is a chance that you will die tonight, there are some universes where you will die, but you will only be aware of those in which you survive.

And therefore, black holes and baby universes, lead to a kind of multiverse immortality.

Niacin dosage for high cholesterol

The recommended daily dosage of niacin is 16mg (males) or 14mg (females), with a maximum dosage of 35mg, beyond which you end up with a niacin flush. Niacin flushes are not dangerous, but they can be uncomfortable.

Niacin is a precursor for (it turns into) nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), which in turn is a precursor for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), which helps your DNA repair itself.

The nutritional need for niacin was first noted in 1937, 100 years after its first discovery, after a long chase for the cause and cure of Pellegra in the US.

Studies found that high-dosage niacin can reduce high cholesterol levels (hypercholesterolemia). The niacin dosage for high cholesterol is 1-6 grams of niacin daily, starting from a lower 100mg per day and increasing steadily. This is best done using a slow-release supplement, which will reduce the “hit” that the body receives, thus lowering the effect of the niacin flush.

High dosages of niacin cause liver damage, with symptoms of jaundice, itching, nausea, vomiting and fatigue. However, the damage is usually mild, and will stop as soon as the niacin overdosage is stopped.