what is the maximum lifespan of the human body?

It’s amusing to watch people predict things and then see their predictions fall flat almost before the words leave their mouths.

In 1928, Louis Dublin used US life tables to predict an “ultimate figure of 64.75“, saying that it was impossible for a human to live longer than that without the intervention of “radical innovations or fantastic evolutionary change in our physiological make-up, such as we have no reason to assume”.

He was not aware that at that very moment, non-Māori women of New Zealand had a life expectancy of 74.9 years – more than 10 years more than Dublin thought was possible (see Life Expectancy table here).

8 years later, in 1936, Dublin worked with Alfred Lotka on a reassessment, taking New Zealand’s data into account, and predicted a new limit, 69.93. in 1941, only five years later, women in Iceland broke that limit

Undeterred, he tried again, predicting a life expectancy limit of 70.8 years in 1941. Only five years later it was reported that women were reaching into their 80s in Norway.

The error with this kind of prediction, which people keep on doing over and over, is that it is based on information available on how long we lived in the past, but doesn’t take into account that we are always discovering new ways to live longer.

In 1990, S. Jay Olshansky predicted that “it seems highly unlikely that life expectancy at birth will exceed the age of 85“. In 2002, the life expectancy of Japanese females at birth was 85.2 years.

The country with the current highest life expectancy at birth is Monaco, with an expected life expectancy of 89.5 years.

It should be noted that “life expectancy” is not a limit on mortality. It doesn’t state for a fact, that people will not live longer than that. All it says is that this is the age at which most people are expected to die. There will be outliers that live well beyond that, and accidents where people die before that.

But, the fact that the number keeps on increasing, no matter what the experts say, shows that the human race is (very) gradually winning the fight against mortality.

More recent limits are based not on the past indicators of how long people have lived, but on limitations imposed on the human body by biology itself.

A recent prediction is that the biological limit for human longevity is 126 years old, based on the Hayflick limit, which limits how long a human cell can keep replicating itself, because the telomeres at the end of the DNA shorten each time, until the cells stop replicating and go into senescent mode instead.

But, there is now a treatment that can lengthen telomeres, showing that yet again, the naysayers who put limits on what is possible, are consistently low-reaching. And even for those cells that have passed their Hayflick limits, we have senolytics designed for killing senescent cells.

The future is optimistic. We are pushing our mortality further and further into the future. Read more about how we are learning to solve these problems in my book on how to live forever.

FOXO4 DRI prices (July 2017)

I’ve removed a few entries from the table of prices I was tracking, because they were not DRI peptides.

If you are buying in bulk, it would be cheaper to synthesise, as discovered by some people at Longecity, who were quoted about $231.15 per 30mg dose, as long as you’re willing to fork out nearly $8000 to buy a 1000mg shipment.

The off-the-shelf prices are coming down quickly, month by month, as you can see, with NovoPro being the first lab to provide 30mg for less than $2000 (down from more than twice the price only two months ago!)

Shop May June July
Bucky Labs 2460 2265
NovoPro 4060.2 2144.6 1756.8

Hopefully next month, there will be more labs providing FOXO4 DRI off-the-shelf.

It’s still very expensive, but I’m certain that as demand ramps up, the prices will drop.

If you are aware of any lab that sells FOXO4 D-Retro-Inverso(DRI) peptide please comment below so I can add them to the list

maximum lifespan of a human

Last year (October 2016), a number of scientists pronounced that humans can not live longer than 115 years old.

This, despite the fact that a French woman, Jeanne Calment, died aged 122.

The problem arose because these scientists based their pronouncement on existing data, not factoring in the fact that we have never in the history of medicine applied ourselves to solving aging itself, but rather to solving the health issues that arise as side effects of aging.

This is similar in a way to stating that the highest point a person could ever touch on a wall is about 2.5 meters above ground, totally ignoring that we can invent stools or ladders.

Aging is only recently being recognised as a disease, and the fundamental causes of it are still being identified.

One reason we have an apparent limit on longevity is that genes have a “half-life” of sorts, where they can only divide a certain maximum number of times before they refuse to divide anymore. This limit is called the “Hayflick limit” after the person who noticed it.

The reason that genes won’t divide forever is that the ends of them, the telomeres, get shorter each time a division happens, and eventually they are so short that another division might cause a loss of functional code, so the cells notice this and refuse to divide anymore, going into senescence mode.

There are two treatments which can solve this issue.

Firstly, there is a treatment which has been demonstrated to lengthen the telomeres. If this treatment is repeated each ten-fifteen years, the telomeres should stay long indefinitely.

Second, you can kill the already-senescent cells by blocking the FOXO4 protein using a FOXO4-DRI (a FOXO4 peptide whose amino acid sequence has been reversed). This allows the senescent cells to die off, letting the body replace them with fresher cells.

And to help the DNA replicate more correctly, probably reducing the frequency that telomere treatment would be needed, you can increase the NAD+ in your cells by using NMN supplements.

People in the past never had access to those treatments, so it is understandable that there was an apparent limit to lifespan, but there really is no excuse – a scientist should never make an absolute claim like that which can so easily be shown to be false.

image source

FOXO4-DRI price updates

It’s only been two weeks since I last checked the price of 30mg of FOXO4-DRI (the FOXO4 peptide), and already there are huge changes in the prices.

Shop May June
Novus Biologicals €85,800 €85,800
Merck €10,755 €43,020
Bucky Labs $2,460
NovoPro $4,060.20 $2,144.60
MyBioSource $1,830 $1,830

Bucky Labs is new to the list. The only other place I could find to buy FOXO4-DRI was at a shop that asks that you contact them for prices. That always says to me “you can’t afford it, and we don’t want to sell it to you anyway”.

I’m still puzzled at the huge difference in prices here. Maybe I’m reading their websites wrong and these are actually different products? If so, please comment below to help me understand.

Note: FOXO4, not FOX04. The only number in there is 4. The “FOX” is short for FOrkhead boX, and there are variations of the final part from FOXA1 to FOXR2 and all letters in between. FOXO4 is the 4th member of the FOXO subclass.

FOXO4 peptide prices

When I checked last, the price for a full human dosage of FOXO4-DRI (used to kill senescent cells) was $3000 per day, based on the first reply here.

I expect that the price will go down as people discover it, with the various drugs companies fighting each other to catch the market. I’m going to periodically check to see how the prices reduce, and when it gets into a range I’m comfortable with (definitely not $3000 per day!), I will test it myself.

Current prices for 30mg are:
€85,800 at NovusBio
$4,060.20 at Novoprolabs
$1,830.00 at MyBioSource (and 6 free USB drives for some reason…)

I don’t understand why the prices are so wildly different.

At this moment, I think it would be cheaper to pay your way through college and then buy the lab equipment and synthesise it yourself. The FOXO4 peptide’s amino sequence is described in the patent, but I don’t think patents restrict you from doing things as long as you don’t benefit commercially from them.

foxo4 human trial (not plural)

There is at least one person trialling the FOXO4 peptide (albeit informally), and blogging about his experiences while taking it. I’ve added him to my list of feeds – looking forward to his progress!

I’d love to know where he’s getting his stash from, but I’m sure he’d prefer not to say, in case the producer gets in trouble (FOXO4-DRI has still not been approved for human trials). [update: he’s in the business, so didn’t need to go through commercial channels]

FOXO4 is a gene that, in senescent cells, uses the p53 gene to stop the cell from splitting further, but also stops it from dying (apoptosis).

Recent research shows that if the FOXO4 gene is blocked using FOXO4-DRI (a kind of peptide), then senescent cells will kill themselves, and the body can recover by growing new younger cells to replace them.

Killing senescent cells is necessary, because if you don’t, then they accumulate over time, eventually being the only kind of cells that you have.

Nutrition chapters, and FOXO4 peptides

This week, I started working on the Nutrition chapters. I read a fascinating 1791 book by George Fordyce titled A Treatise on the Digestion of Food. In it, he proved that calcium is a nutritional need for chickens in order that hens could lay eggs.

He also weirdly was able to prove that goldfish can survive for weeks on end in distilled water with no food. I haven’t taken the time yet to figure out how he got that wrong, but I’m pretty sure he did!

I’ve been searching to see if I can find cheap sources for FOXO4 peptides, but the lowest price is still about $85 for 50μg.

Live Forever – the blog

This short article is an introduction to what I’m trying to achieve here, and how.

I started writing a book on how to live forever a few years ago, but never got much beyond the first few pages.

It’s becoming more and more probable that the first person to live to two hundred has already been born, so I wanted to create a book that would describe the current state of research, and ideas on how we can achieve full immortality (not just life extension)/

I have enough content in the book now that I can start putting together a website for it.

My idea is that by putting the entire content of the book online, I can use split-testing to try make it better, by carefully analysing what pages of the book lead to people moving onto the next page, etc.

With the book, I am trying to be as factual as possible about everything, with references for everything that might be contentious.

For the most part, the book’s content is general knowledge – don’t smoke, avoid obesity, exercise – but there is a lot of stuff that people don’t know about, and that sounds really crazy (for want of a better word!) at first hearing.

You’ve probably never heard of NAD+, FOXO4 peptides, or telomere lengthening, for example.

These are properly researched methods to keep your body’s cells young. You will have heard, for example, that red wine is good for you because of something called Resveretrol. Well, David Sinclair, the scientist behind that research went on to research something else called NAD. It turns out there is very solid evidence that this extends life in mice, and there are human trials that suggest the same thing. Of course, we live longer than mice, so we won’t be certain of this for a long time, but the evidence is strong enough that Sinclair and his team take the NMN supplement themselves (which increases NAD in your cells).

On the crazy side, I’ve also written about Quantum Immortality – the idea that you cannot die, because there are infinite universes and there will always be at least one in which you (or an exact clone, right down to the memories) will wake up tomorrow – which is not really as mad as it sounds. Especially if you compare it with some ideas that various religions state as fact.